Justifications for child labor were not only related to costs and productivity, but also ideology:
"There is such a thing as too much education for working people sometimes. I have seen cases where young people are spoiled for labor by....too much refinement."
Child labor reform laws prevented children from working, decreasing much-needed income for the household. Often, parents would lie about their children's ages in order to obtain jobs for them .
"In a single block in Kensington, fourteen women, mothers of twenty-two children all under twelve, explained it was a question of starvation or perjury." —Mother Jones 
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In Hammer v. Dagenhart, a father sued to overturn the Keating-Owen Act so that his underage sons could work, showing that some parents opposed reform .